Organization of the Country
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a population of about 3.9 million people (according to last confirmed census 4.3 million in 1992). The country has a complex political and administrative structure and there are several levels to consider. Following the Dayton peace agreement, signed in Paris in December 1995, a second tier of government was created when the country, which has an area of about 51,000 km2, was divided into two entities: the Republic of Srpska, representing 49 per cent of the territory, and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, representing 51 per cent. Each has its own administrative structure. In 1996, the Brčko Federal District, a 493 km2 territory on the the Sava river, was established after an arbitration process undertaken by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina form the third level of the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s political and administrative division. The fourth level is formed by the municipalities: 78 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 63 in the Republic of Srpska. (*)
(*) The organizational complexity depends mainly on the size of the population to be dealt with: in the following we will refer to Level 0 when dealing with organizations responsible for populations of 10 million to 100 million; to Level 1 when dealing with organizations responsible for populations of 1 million to 10 million; to Level 2 when dealing with organizations responsible for populations of 100,000 to 1 million; and to Level 3 when dealing with organizations responsible for populations of 10,000 to 100,000.